Author: Karthic K

Active user sessions in vCloud Director

Unlike user Sessions in vCenter there is no method to check in vCloud GUI, but we can get the information from the vCloud DB.

Requirement: DB Access to the vCloud DB

Query to find the number of Active users: Run the below query against vCloud DB.

select username,fullname,email,date_last_accessed from usr,user_session where usr.user_id = user_session.user_id;



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Here are some great Training from VMware university for free

Click the below links to register

VMware vCloud Director Fundamentals [V5.5]

vCloud Networking and Security Fundamentals [V5.5]

vCloud Director 1.5

vShield Fundamentals

VMware vShield Edge Fundamentals [V5.X]

VMware vShield App Fundamentals [V5.X]


Other great free courses offered by VMware University.

Virtualization Basics

Virtualization Basics:

Virtualization is a term that refers to the various techniques, methods and approaches, in this post I will provide overview of x86 hardware virtualization.Virtualization, in simple, running more than a operating system in an isolated and secure environment on a single physical hardware.

History of Virtualization begins with IBM mainframes (1960s), back in old days engineers worry that the hardware is not completely utilized all the time and the Mainframe hardware cost is huge. So they pioneered Virtualization by partitioning their mainframes to perform multitasking to utilize their hardware efficiently.

Hardware Virtualization on x86 platform was introduced originally by VMware(1998) and since then many companies entered into market including Mircosoft, Citrix, Redhat…etc, but VMware continues to lead in the x86 Virtualization market. Virtualization is introduced to address various problems in the Physical IT world. In physical IT world not only the Hardware is under utilized but also it has various barriers like consuming various hardware parts, electricity, datacenter space and its administration.

Traditional computing vs Virtualized computing.

The basic goal of virtualization is to run more than a operating system on the same physical hardware, today most of the organization do not utilize their completely, if there are 100 Physical servers hosted in a datacenter and if the average utilization of a server is 20% can be consolidate into 20-22 physical servers (where 2 servers can be kept as a buffer) from 100 servers., which will save huge CapEx (Capital Expense) , OpEx (Operational Expense) and also ease of administration.

Hardware Virtualiztion itself can be achieved by two methods, Hosted and Baremetal. in Hosted virtualization, Virtual machines are created from the virtualization software that is installed on a operating system.Often  Hosted virtualization is used for testing purposes because of  OS dependency. The base operating system is designed for various purposes to compute day to day activities, so it will not give optimal results for the virtual machines, hence hosted virtualization is not considered for production environment.

Hosted Virtualization software: VMware Workstation, VirtualBox, parallels workstation, Microsoft Virtual PC..etc..

The term Baremetal refers physical server. Baremetal virtualization is powerful and used in the production environment. Instead on running a VM on a virtualization software on top a Operating system, VMs will be placed directly into virtualization OS called hypervisor. The hypervisor is mainly designed to manage physical  resource allocation to VMs, so it gives optimal and efficient performance.

Hypervisors: VMware ESX/ESXi, Citrix Xenserver, Hyper-V..etc..

                                                           Hosted  vs Baremetal virtualization.

Common Virtualization terms:

Host: Physical Server that host Virtual Machine.
Host OS: Hypervisor – Virtualization Operating system.
Virtual Machine: Combination of several files that forms a machine which allows to run OS.
Guest OS: Operating System that installed on Virtual Machine.

Other virtualization types:

–  Application Virtualization.
–  Desktop Virtualization.
–  Storage Virtualization.
–  Network Virtualization.

Links & Downloads:

vSphere ESXi 5.1 – Free Version
VMware Player – Free version
All VMware Downloads

Oracle VirtualBox

XenServer – Free edition

VCAP-CIA Released

 What is VCAP-CIA?
VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Cloud Infrastructure Administration.
–  Advanced Level Certification for vCloud Director.
–  This Certification is similar to VCAP-DCA,It is  a Live LAB Exam consists
    of 28-30 Questions / tasks.
–  It evaluates candidate knowledge on.
         –  vCloud director Administration.
         –  Installation.
–   Configuration.
–  Ability to manage complex Private, Public and Hybrid clouds.
–  Ability to manage complex vCloud networks.

VCAP-CIA Resources: 


 VCP-DCV 5 (VMware Certified professional – Data Center Virtualization).
VCP-Cloud (VCPVCD510)

Preparing for VCAP-CIA:


–  Deploy Home VCD lab.
–  Explore all available options in VCD. (Do not leave any options).
–  LAB performance may be sluggish so prepare yourself well ,know what you are doing and Complete the task in one go.
–  Read the complete vCloud director Documentation
–  Go through the Blue-Print.

How to manage time in the VCAP exams?

when I was attending VCAP-DCA I stuck on a task for 1 hour without realizing (In VCAP exams time flies like a jet) , so this time  I have followed below steps in order to track and manage time.
–  Once I entered into the Exam Venue, I got one Erasable PAD and Pen

–  In the pad, I wrote the Numbers 1 to 28 (No of questions).
–  You can observe time counter on Top Right side.
–  So I wrote 1 with Start time say 230 Min  – 1) Start -230
–  Started doing the task and at the end I wrote in the pad with end time and a tickmark.
–  ” 1)  Start 230 Min – end 221 Min – Tick ” .
–  This step will identify how long you take to complete one question / task and will help you in managing other questions.
Sample Question:


 Create a vAPP with following properties

  –  2 VMs inside VAPP
  –  Name first VM – InternalVM
  –  Name Second VM – ExternalVM
  –  Configure InternalVM with only Internal Network Connectivity.
   – Configure ExternalVM with both Internal Only Org Network and External NAT routed      Network.

VMware Essential Links

Config Maximums – VMware

HCL – Interop Matrix

Cli – Power Cli

Product Release – Build Info

Tech Center


vExpert Directory

VMware Product Documentation


Cards – Poster


Free Courses from VMware University

VMware Products – End of Product / Support life


Recreating corrupted VMX file

During Vm’s VMX corruption, it loses its ability to power on VM since the VM will either go as “Invalid” or “Inaccessible” state.

There are multiple methods to re-create VMXs files to get the VM up, this is a simple method to recreate VMX with minimal amount of time.

This method(Script) will read the VMware.log of the VMS and based on the logs it will fill up the properties of the VM in VMX file,

How to use this script :

1. Take SSH to the ESX host.

2. Go to the VM Directory.

3. Take backup on existing VMX file #mv vmname.vmx vmname.vmxbackup.

4.Type vi



5. Press I for Insert mode.

6. Paste the script contents.


VMXFILENAME=$(sed -n 's/^.*Config file: .*/(.+)$/1/p' vmware.log)
echo -e "#41/usr/bin/vmware" > ${VMXFILENAME}
echo '.encoding = "UTF-8"' >> ${VMXFILENAME}
sed -n '/DICT --- CONFIGURATION/,/DICT ---/ s/^.*DICT +(.+) = (.+)$/1 = "2"/p' vmware.log >> ${VMXFILENAME}

7. Make the file executable #chmod +x

8. Execute the file #./

9. You can see the VMX is recreated in the VM directory.

10. Re-Register the VM, #vim-cmd solo/registervm /vmfs/volumes/datastorename/newvmx.vmx

Reference KB :

vCloud Director Maximums 1.5 / 5.1 / 5.5

vCloud Director Maximums 1.5 / 5.1 / 5.5

When I troubleshoot issues, multiple customers inquired about vCloud director maximums, usually I refer them KB and Documents. I just decided to do comparision of both vCloud versions and post it here, I believe it should be useful for others and especially me for my own reference.

Please note that you cannot achieve the maximums in all categories at the same time, so make sure to understand how the limits apply to your use cases.

vCloud Director 1.5 vCloud Director 5.1 vCloud Director 5.5
Total Virtual Machines 20000 30,000 50,000
Powered-on Virtual Machines 10000 10,000 30,000
Total vApps ?? 30,000 30,000
Virtual Machines per vApp 128 128 128
ESX/i Hosts 2000 2,000 3,000
vCenter Servers 25 25 20
Total Users 10000 10,000 25,000
Concurrent Users ?? 1,500 1,500
Logged-in Users ?? 5,000 5,000
Total Organizations 10000 10,000 10,000
Users per Organization ?? 1,000 1,000
vApps per Organization 500 3,000 3,000
Virtual Datacenters (VDCs) 5000 10,000 10,000
Resource Pools per VDC ?? 32 32
Datastores 1024 1,000 1,024
Concurrent Virtual Machine Consoles 100 500 500
Logical Networks 10156 10,000 10,000
vApp Networks 2987 1,000 1,000
External Networks 524 512 512
Isolated VDC Networks 2264 2,000 2,000
Direct VDC Networks 2000 10,000 10,000
Routed VDC Networks 2376 2,000 2,000
Gateways NA 1,000 1,000
Network Pools 10 40 40
Catalogs 1000 10,000 10,000
Media 1000 1,000 1,000
Independent Disks NA 1,000 1,000
Storage Classes NA 50 50
Storage Pods NA 100 100

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